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Acupuncture in Animals

Acupuncture is the process of placing needles below the skin to help stimulate muscles and nerve fibers to promote healing. Acupuncture points are located where nerves enter or pass between muscles and fascia. Stimulation of these points helps to relax tissues and release mediators that reduce pain and inflammation. The needles used in acupuncture can influence nerve conduction and help to dilate vessels, improve blood flow and oxygenate surrounding tissues.

Dr. Jeneé Daws is trained in veterinary acupuncture. She has completed over 160 hours of continuing education and is certified to perform acupuncture and electroacupuncture on horses, dogs, cats or any veterinary species.

Every patient reacts to acupuncture differently, so Dr. Daws conducts a myofascial exam at the initial acupuncture appointment. This allows her to fully understand the patient’s problems and further identify target areas for therapy. 75% of patients receiving acupuncture see favorable outcomes from therapy.

Acupuncture therapy does not inflict serious pain. The small acupuncture needles are tapered to slide in smoothly without being noticed, especially when the patient is distracted with petting or treats. Sometimes patients will even fall asleep during treatment.

Rarely, a patient will be slightly sore or lethargic within the first 48 hours after treatment. This is not necessarily a bad thing, however, because it indicates that the acupuncture therapy influenced a physiological change in the patient. The soreness you may see is usually followed by a considerable improvement in the condition being treated.

Below are some of the conditions that acupuncture can be used for:

Musculoskeletal conditions (arthritis, disc disease, hip dysplasia)

Skin conditions (allergies and wounds)

Gastrointestinal disorders (constipation and diarrhea)

Neurologic problems (nerve injuries, paralysis and seizures)

Age-related conditions (weakness and muscle atrophy)

Cancer Pain

Urinary disorders (incontinence and renal failure)

Peri-surgical anxiety (amount of anesthetic needed for surgery)

Acupuncture is one of the many ways you can contribute to your pet’s overall wellness and health. Feel free to ask us for more information on ways acupuncture therapy could benefit your pet!

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June Patient of the Month

Waylon is our June patient of the month.  She was riding in the back of a pick up truck when she fell/jumped out and shattered her femur.  Although the vehicle was not traveling very fast, it was enough to cause some serious damage.  Broken bones such as the femur or the humerus can actually be life threatening in some cases.  Blood loss from lacerated blood vessels and bleeding from the medullary canal (the blood-rich bone marrow) can cause enough bleeding that an animal may die from that.

Luckily Waylon’s Mom is a former veterinary technician, so she recognized the signs of blood loss – altered mental state, pale gums, rapid breathing and heart rate – and got her into help right away.  Waylon’s PCV or packed cell volume – a number that represents how many red blood cells are in the blood – dropped down to 26%.  A normal PCV for a dog her breed and size would be about 50%.  Waylon required a blood transfusion.

Once she was stable, the attention turned to her broken bone.  The break was so severe that the leg needed to be amputated.  Waylon had surgery to remove the injured limb.  Following surgery she was able to walk great on three legs and continues to do very well.  She is a hunting dog and will still be able to enjoy that job on three limbs.

Waylon’s story is an important reminder that any dog – no matter how many times they have ridden in the truck bed before – can fall or jump out of the back of a truck.  We have even seen broken bones from vehicles traveling <10 mph.  If at all possible, keep your dog in the cab.  If that isn’t an option, keep your dog in a kennel that is strapped into the bed of the truck.  Avoid having your dog loose in the back of the cab and attached by a leash – that could cause some very serious and obvious injuries as well.  Each year we see several cases – some of them fatal- that involve accidents like this.  We love that Bozeman is a town in which dogs are part of the family and go everywhere with the family – but it is so important to make sure they are safely secured while traveling!

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April Patient of the Month

Spur is our April Patient of the Month.  While he was playing at the dog park one night, he was rolled by a larger dog.  He came up with a limp and was taken to PETS, the small animal emergency hospital and then brought to All West Veterinary Hospital the next day for a cast and radiographs.

Spur fractured his radius and ulna, two bones in the front limb.  The fracture was a complete transverse fracture of the distal third of both bones.  There are several ways to fix this, including a bone plate, an external fixator or a cast.  Spur’s owner opted for a cast and so it was placed and radiographs were taken to check alignment.  The x-rays showed that there was a small step, but over half of the fracture ends touched each other.  Since Spur is a young dog and there is that much bone contact, the fracture should heal well.

Spur has been coming in weekly for cast checks to make sure that it is wearing well and there are no spots rubbing.  He will have to stay on a leash until the cast comes off, and although he is not happy about that, he is doing well and should be back in action soon!

 

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Mango – March POM

Our March Patient of the Month is Mango, the Sun Conure.  Mango came to All West Veterinary Hospital with a broken leg.  The broken bone was Mango’s right tibiotarsal bone.  He was taken to surgery and the fracture was repaired by ESF, which is external skeletal fixation.  This technique allows the fracture site to be stabilized and form a callous while being held in place from distant points.  It is a great way to repair fractures in birds.  Mango’s surgery was performed in January and the fixator was removed in March and we are pleased to report that Mango is doing great!

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February Patient of the Month

Meet our February Patient of the Month – Blue the Cat

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Unlike our previous patients of the month, Blue has had no illnesses. He is a completely healthy 1 year old indoor cat. So you may wonder why we are featuring him this month!

He has a super power – he is a blood donor!

Cats may require a blood transfusion due to several diseases like D-con rat poison ingestion, blood loss from trauma, immune system destruction of red blood cells or blood parasites.

There are a few blood banks that offer feline blood to the US. Unfortunately, feline blood can only be stored for 1 month and feline blood transfusions are fairly uncommon. This makes local blood donors ideal because the blood can be obtained as needed. The ideal donor cat is strictly indoors, is 1-8 years old and good tempered. Blue is a whopping 17# (although his mom admits he is 1-2# overweight), strictly indoors & quite mellow. He must stay current on his vaccines, have bi-annual healthy physical exams along with routine annual blood tests. Blue has been screened and has tested negative for viruses like leukemia and FIV and also infectious diseases like Anaplasma, Mycoplasma and Bartonella, just to name a few. His blood type was also tested – he is type A.

Cats have 3 blood types – A, B and AB. 99% of domestic cats in the US are blood type A. Pure bred cats have a 10-50% chance of having blood type B. These breeds include Persian, Himalayan, Birman, Devon Rex and British Shorthairs to name a few. Blood type AB is extremely rare. Type B cats that receive type A blood will show rapid and often fatal reactions. Any cat that receives Blue’s blood must also be blood type A. Blood type is determined with blood typing “cards” we have in-clinic. The picture below shows a blood typing card.

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Another test that is performed before the blood transfusion occurs is a cross-match. A cross-match test uses blood from the donor and recipient. It makes sure that the recipient does not have antibodies that would destroy the donor’s red blood cells, which could cause a reaction for the recipient. This test is also performed in-clinic.

Once these tests are performed and Blue is deemed a compatible blood donor for a recipient cat, Blue is sedated to allow easy, stress-free collection of his blood. Fur over his neck is clipped and an antiseptic solution cleans his skin. Cats can donate 10-20% of their blood volume safely, which is based on their ideal body weight. At his weight, Blue can donate about 85 mL of blood. The blood collection takes about 10-15 minutes. He receives oxygen and his heart rate and oxygen levels in his blood are monitored while he is sedated. Once his sedative is reversed, he wakes up and goes home. Then he dines on a meal of canned food.

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An anti-coagulant is placed in the syringes prior to collection of the blood. This prevents blood from clotting. Since the blood is going to be used immediately, the blood from the syringes is injected into a sterile empty bag. A special IV line and filter is attached to administer the blood to the recipient. This filter collects any microscopic clots that could harm the recipient.

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The new red blood cells should live 1-2 months in the blood stream of the recipient cat, which usually allows time for treatment of their underlying condition. Blue receives a small monetary stipend for his donation, which he uses to buy his food and an occasional bag of cat-nip and Greenies.

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Meet Baby, our January Patient of the Month!

Baby is a 3 year old female Neopoliton Mastiff who presented to the pet emergency clinic (PETS) when her mom came home to find her lethargic and gagging. Baby was able to walk into PETS, but collapsed shortly after arrival. Her oxygen levels (sPO2) were dangerously low, so the doctor decided to sedate Baby and intubate her (place a breathing tube into her trachea). Upon intubation he found a large swelling in the back of her mouth covering her airway. Oxygen was delivered through her breathing tube and she was given intravenous antibiotics and sedation so she would tolerate the breathing tube.

 

Baby was transferred to All West in the morning with her IV sedation running and breathing tube in place. Further testing revealed severe pneumonia. The All West doctors suspected that the swelling in the back of her mouth was a large infection that may have been caused by a bone or stick puncturing her mouth tissue. The pneumonia could have been caused by infection draining from the swelling or if bacterial from the swelling got into her bloodstream, then into her lungs.

 

Baby remained at All West during the day receiving oxygen, IV fluids, antibiotics, sedation and lots of intensive nursing care. It took a team of technicians to care for her round the clock given she weighed 150#! At night she was transferred back to PETS by our technicians using portable oxygen. This continued for 2 days & 3 nights total. On the 3rd night at PETS she maintained healthy oxygen levels without additional oxygen, so her breathing tube was removed and she was woken up from her sedation. The doctor placed a nasal cannula to deliver a little extra oxygen.

 

When Baby went home her mom had to give her multiple antibiotics and use a nebulizer to deliver moistened air and antibiotics directly to her lungs. Follow-up visits show she has made a full recovery! Baby’s recovery was the results of her being a young, strong dog prior to her illness and the teamwork between All West and PETS to provide round-the-clock critical care for a super-sized dog. We are happy that Baby is back to her spunky self!

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December Patient of the Month!

Meet Rudy, our December patient of the month! Rudy is sweet little Pomeranian mix puppy. At just 16 weeks old Rudy was doing what any puppy loves to do, playing with his bigger dog friends! During all the playtime fun Rudy sadly got stepped on by the bigger dogs. Shortly after the incident Rudy’s parents noticed he was not using his right hind leg and was just holding it up. He showed no pain when his leg was touched but his parent’s knew something wasn’t right so they brought him in to All West to be looked at.

After examining Rudy we proceeded to take radiographs of his hind leg to see what was going on. When the radiograph showed up on the screen it confirmed the doctor’s suspicion, a broken distal femur. The femur is the bone above the knee and Rudy had fractured off the end closest to his knee and incorporated his growth plate. It was clear at this point surgery was needed to repair the bone, however, there was only an 80% chance that he would return to full function after surgery due to the complicated location of the break. In the future, he will also be at risk for arthritis and decreased range of motion. Rudy was taken to surgery the next day and Dr. Jacy Cook placed two wires to stabilize the fracture. Rudy was a champ and pulled through surgery with flying colors. The next day you would have thought he was a normal puppy and that nothing had happened, he was ready to go!! Unfortunately the next 6 weeks wasn’t going be as fun as Rudy would like, he needed strict rest with only leash walks while his fracture healed itself.

It is now 4 weeks after Rudy’s surgery and he is doing great! He still has two weeks left before his 6 week recheck where we will take another radiograph to assess the healing of his fracture but he is putting up very well with his leash walks and extra attention. Be sure to check out our Facebook page for more pictures and radiographs and for updates on Rudy’s recovery!

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October Patient of the Month

This is Hank (on the left), our October Patient of the Month!  His Mom, Sam, is one of our large animal technicians.  Sam noticed one night that Hank was acting like he didn’t feel well – he was a little lethargic and seemed like he may be a bit nauseous as he was drooling.  He was willing to eat a small handful of food, but the next morning began vomiting bile and was definitely not right.

She brought him into AWVH for a work up and he had bloodwork and x-rays.   His bloodwork showed that he was a bit stressed and dehydrated.  Abdominal radiographs showed even more abnormalities.  Although his stomach was empty, there was a section of his small intestine that looked a bit suspicious.  There was increased tissue opacity, meaning the radiograph showed more white/grey (how soft tissue and fluid show up) than black  (how gas shows up) than what was expected.  The area had a triangular to diamond shape and was enough to make us suspicious of a foreign body causing an obstruction which was making Hank feel very ill.

Hank was taken to surgery and sure enough, a foreign body was found.  He had somehow eaten enough grass to block part of his small intestine, called the jejunum.  With the obstruction he began to feel ill and stopped drinking, making his body and his intestines dehydrated.  All of this distention, blockage and dehydration contributed to poor GI motility, or peristalsis, meaning that his intestinal movement was really sluggish and he was unable to move the bolus of grass forward through his GI tract.

Luckily for Hank, he bounced right back.  In addition to having surgery to have the obstruction removed, he also received medication for pain, antibiotics to prevent infection and IV fluids to rehydrate him and get his intestines moving again.   Hank has made a full recovery, and we hope he has learned his lesson about eating too much grass!

See his x-rays and more photos on our Facebook page!

 

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September Patient of the Month

The fall has been busy here at All West, but we did have an interesting case in September we still wanted to post as our patient of the month.

This horse is a 6 year old Missouri Fox Trotter.  He was seen in the field for lameness that was present for several days in his left hindlimb.  Prior to being seen, he had somehow stepped on a nail about 3 weeks earlier.  After that he was sore for several days but then improved and went out to pasture.

When we looked at this horse, he was able to walk on his left hindlimb but was pretty sore, and would prefer to toe-touch in order to rest it while he was standing still.  His vitals were normal.  He was positive to hoof testers – meaning when we applied hoof testers to his foot, he had a painful response.

Given his history of stepping on a nail several weeks earlier, we were suspicious that this may not just be your average, run of the mill foot abscess.  He was given a pain medication and came into the hospital for x-rays and a further work up.  Once in the hospital, his shoe was removed and a lateral x-ray was taken that showed a large gas pocket between his coffin bone and his sole.

His foot was soaked to soften it, and then he was sedated so that we could fully explore his foot without it being too uncomfortable for him.  Our farrier was able to find that the area where the nail had been actually communicated with a large region of undermined sole.  What likely happened is that the nail and/or nail hole caused an infection in the sensitive sole tissues of the foot and there was a pocket of infection that likely initially filled with fluid and then gas on our radiographs.

The treatment was not much different compared to other abscesses we see – the foot needed to be soaked and poulticed, bandaged and the patient was put on antibiotics and pain medications and received a tetanus booster.  However, his owners had to be especially careful to keep his foot clean and bandaged while the sole was growing out in order to make sure that it did not get reinfected.

If you ever find that your horse has stepped on a nail – call your veterinarian right away.  If we can take a radiograph with the nail in place, we can get a better idea of what structures may be involved and what treatment may be necessary.

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Pet and Backyard Chickens at All West

Pet & Backyard Chickens at All West

There has been an increase of pet, backyard, and urban chickens in Bozeman in the past few years due to new city ordinances that allow such. More recently, Belgrade is working to pass an urban chicken ordinance to allow its citizens to also keep chickens. This has been an exciting thing for chicken enthusiasts in our area! With that, All West Veterinary Hospital has seen more chickens and answered more calls regarding chickens than ever before. We proudly offer excellent service and care for all avian creatures including chickens.

Chicken Keeping 101: Basic Husbandry

Keep your chickens in a clean, dry and well-ventilated (but not windy) coop.  Providing a predator proof coop and pen is very important to the longevity of your chickens! Bed your coop with pine shavings to absorb urine and feces; add straw in the winter for insulation. As a general rule of thumb, for backyard chicken keeping, birds need 4sq feet of indoor coop space and 10sq feet of outdoor/pen space. Crowding of birds can cause hen pecking, generally unhappy birds, and unsanitary living conditions. Provide a place in the coop for birds to roost (multiple areas and levels if more than three birds), and a nesting box (1 per 3 birds) to lay their eggs.

Ample food and water should be available at all times. A good “layer” feed should be available full time, and providing a selection of kitchen scraps to your birds is a great way to enhance their diets! When your bird is molting (biannual shedding of their feathers), be sure to provide food that has a higher percentage of protein, 16% or more. Feathers are made of nearly 80% protein! When a bird is molting, their egg production slows, and their body focuses on generating new feathers.  Foods for your chickens to avoid include citruses, overly salty food, onion, and overly starchy foods. It is important to have a free-choice calcium source, such as oyster shells, always available to allow for strong eggshell production. Free ranging can be a great pastime for your birds that might get bored being penned up all the time. Make sure that your birds are supervised to avoid encounters with neighborhood dogs or people who might not enjoy a chicken scratching in their garden.  If your birds are not free range, it is important to provide some opportunity for foraging to prevent boredom and aggression.

Be sure to inspect your birds regularly for parasites like mites and lice, which can be transferred from wild birds. These little bugs can stress your birds, reduce egg production, and are generally not good for the overall health of your bird. These little insects can usually be found in the fine fluff feathers around the chicken’s vent and under their wings and are very easily dealt with by dusting your birds with a powdered pesticide from the local farm store. Keeping the coop clean can also help to reduce parasite numbers, and adding diatomaceous earth to their dust baths can minimize parasites as well.  Always read the label when treating your birds with any products! And don’t fear: these disgusting little creatures are species specific, meaning you don’t have to worry about becoming infected with them yourself. Remember to always wash your hands before and after handling your chickens as their eggs and their feces can carry communicable diseases like salmonella.

Chickens do very well when consistently provided with all of the things to meet their basic needs. They make great companions for families with children and anybody who has an available backyard space. We look forward to hearing from our clients with any chicken questions or concerns! Happy chicken raising, and enjoy all those eggs!

This article was written by Megan McGaffigan Lang, an Equine Technician at All West Veterinary Hospital. She is an avid chicken enthusiast who has 5 of her own backyard pet chickens.  Photo credit poultryhaus.com.

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